“Time may be the fire we burn in.” And though we may not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have made an effort to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance is a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is a world apart, a reminder of the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe within the eons ahead.
For people who seek to discover truths about the workings of the cell, holding back the floodgates of energy is a concern of significant proportions. Scientists are generally interested in very specific cell properties that take place at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties may be exploited is similar to the trouble of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as you means to fix the situation in the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity goes to a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments with time, returning time and again to analyze that instant in history.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics has become an important industry that creates customized products for nearly every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the industry in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, canisters, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With your numerous products to pick from knowledge of those are most efficient may elude the normal consumer. So that you can provide a summary of the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers is going to be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are one of those things that many people never consider until they quit working. Built to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers are definitely the quiet sentinels in the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch across the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists stay away from the very thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory during the day whenever it did. A career’s worth of samples might be lost within a afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the floor. Although this type of scenario looms ominously in the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, few are prepared for the day in the event it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make certain that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in their refrigerators. Even though the gas industry has used this method for many years, MMR Technologies was the 1st company to patent the technology and adapt it for small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
How the Kleemenko cycle works is that a blend of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is able to expand via a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and the cool gas passes backup the temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. More than one liquid-vapor separators can be incorporated in the cycle so the increase of the liquid enables you to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is really a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and body parts. The device allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and also since it provides an internal power source it can be used to the transportation of samples from storage facility to examine laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“As being a user you need to know the minimum temperature and how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes certain that uniform temperatures are already maintained through the entire cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is actually a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are designed for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages may be preserved for prolonged periods. Locking lids are supplied so that you can protect samples from accidental being exposed to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are of help for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits most of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality with this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of doing holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also works with a special blend of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and permit on-site recycling. Additionally, a built-in timer cycles the low stage compressor every 24 hours, turning it away so the capillary tubing will probably be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of producing ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with four decades of experience under its belt, So-Low is amongst the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the market. If the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to make use of Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of eco friendly refrigerants, So-Low has developed a cutting-edge compressor that may be designed mainly for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens right down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units rather than the typical cylindrical containers. All these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, plus a storage system adjusts to accommodate a variety of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is amongst the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding 50 years of expertise in the industry. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be bought in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions to the external and internal environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. In addition, it features a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil in the evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for more than 2 decades, starting with its manufacturing of the 1st -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the introduction of the 1st -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the very first manufacturer to offer a complete range of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for use within preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The term dewar, originally placed on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now used on an array of insulated vessels intended for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or take a seat on tabletops where samples can be simply accessed. Because of the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that 12 months without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The common thermal wall includes an aluminum or steel sandwich filled with polyurethane. The size and style and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that many companies build custom dewars to buy. Some of these companies in addition to their products are reviewed inside the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE has made laboratory freezers for a wide variety of applications. Obviously, animal breeders are only a small amount of its customers. Blood and cell storage in addition to organ shipment are an equally large element of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing area of the market for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to formulate biological freezers competent at maintaining a -190°C environment for the full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that period MVE has released the full type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling as many as 36,000 vials at temperatures as little as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suited to cells which can be stored at -125°C but may become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers will also be ideal for storing hazardous materials that could cross-communicate in a liquid medium, for example contaminated-blood bags that happen to be liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the states and Germany. Its product line includes anything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
As outlined by Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one way his company has managed to remain competitive is simply by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they may be custom designed.
One of Quantum Technology’s most widely used products is actually a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in several countries away from The United States and Europe, the expense of purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is amongst the explanations why Quantum Technology makes an efficient two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained from the system. The helium using this refrigerator is reliquified to use again and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask type of items that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and every one of these models is accessible by using a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask collection of products include vented lids to stop pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples saved in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, that happen to be distributed by several companies throughout america. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and provide features for example super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and possess capacities as much as 6,000 vials. As well as several of the standard features contained in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks having a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, along with an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates contact with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes various traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model features a vented polyethylene stopper to lessen evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can be jacketed in aluminum casing for extra safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times more than two weeks. All of these units come equipped with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a totally shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Selections for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to store vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Every one of these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which is made to maximize the amount of vials which can be safely arranged into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are one of the most often used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out one day. Then its time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the 1st in which concerns the challenge of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped in the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort believe that externally threaded vials are definitely more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate continues.
Yet another consideration which comes under consideration when purchasing cryogenic tubes will be the material that these are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they take longer to warm which can negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes may also be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove using the good care, and a few businesses like Axygen are switching to new polished molds that do not require the usage of releasing fluids. Glass, on the flip side, warms rapidly but is also at the mercy of fracture as a result of microchannels which could form inside the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the opportunity of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has also been an issue of some contention in this particular industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the interior pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas in the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid through the lids of countless non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is often preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it possesses a tendency to shed its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a difficulty that had been demonstrated as soon as the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, gives a large variety of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that can be used at temperatures only -190°C. Intended for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come designed with attached leak proof caps that consist of a dual lip plus a silicon washer. A particular ridge on each cap makes handling easier, bringing about one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts along with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® model of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, as well as other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be bought in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen even offers a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Included in this are polypropylene tubes, which can be combined with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested in the vacuum chamber so that the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen recently designed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, for usage in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with the 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding highlights of this tube is it is totally transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a variety of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities that are silicone gasketed and guaranteed for use within a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified being sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, as the System 100 vials are guaranteed to be leakproof in the microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and through shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed a thorough catalog of merchandise for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is manufactured out of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that could be hermetically sealed. These are most suitable for that preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that happen to be constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction makes them exceptionally durable, and they may be flame sealed or stored having a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes some polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come equipped with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and simple-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Each one of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be constructed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without mineral fillers or chemical toxins. Foreign substances are added only at the request from the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. All the company’s vials was created to snap closed inside a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports create the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system includes a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees how the microtube is aligned within the centrifuge rotor to become re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colours. An individual has the option for selecting from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that may be colored for identification. All Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material from where they may be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures in addition to temperatures and pressures within an autoclave. One of the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus on in developing its type of products is the need for cryogenic vials that contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes may be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and each one of its O-ring sealed tubes is sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical component of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they could undergo changes that will make them tough to keep trace. Labels can be brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes might be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Just about the most popular methods for containing samples may be the canister and cane. By using this technique, a number of vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be easily manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer system is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility in the system reduces exposure time for you to ambient temperatures causing less evaporation from the freezer, plus cuts down on the researcher’s exposure to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the level of space for storage afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The standard inventory configuration is a cardboard or stainless-steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems permit the user to set up as many as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Intended for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a multitude of sizes, shapes, and colours to put just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in some models to allow for tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that include storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers can be installed in virtually any upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise some plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed in order to avoid misalignment and offer temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless-steel retainer systems compatible with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for convenient retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes on an increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic Movable tank has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous samples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic canisters. The truth is, most of its goods are sold as standard accessories with several of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are made from stainless-steel and can include a selection of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems are available as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today would be the same ones which will be used for years. A purchase made today may last for a decade. In place, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not only buying products by themselves, they may be buying for their successors. The buyer should look into what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated as a result of improper storage. A little money which had been saved at first by scrimping on vials or freezers might not exactly appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards built-in to many of these devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these items a priority. Appointing a permanent position that is mainly responsible for the cryogenic safety of your laboratory’s biological collection is among the guidelines on how to assure the integrity of these samples.